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Schizophrenia is a syndrome. Its presence in any individual does not tell us why it is there. The final common pathway, the clinical expression of the disease, merely points to a particular type of brain disorder which expresses itself in perceptual changes, and thought disorder, and as a result in mood and behavior changes. Before rational treatment can be started it is important to find out what has initiated the disease. In the same way, the pneumonia syndrome can not be treated rationally until we know whether it is caused by a virus, by pneumococcus a bacterium, by Candida or by a tumor. Giving penicillin to a viral pneumonia will not help much. Internists have specific laboratory tests which help them decide. In the field of schizophrenology, a horrible word I have just coined and will never use again, we are just beginning to develop these helpful tests.