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Ayurveda, developed in antiquity by the sages of India, is considered by many scholars to be the most ancient system of health, from which many other systems of medicine stem. The translation of its name offers considerable insight into Ayurveda’s scope and complexity. In Sanskrit, ayus means “life,” and veda means “knowledge.” So, together, they mean the knowledge – or, some would say, science – of life or longevity.
In the West, we have sciences such as biology, physics, and meteorology. Ayurveda, as a holistic system of health, incorporates the laws of nature underlying these sciences to improve our physical, mental, and emotional well-being through practices that are both preventive and curative. Here is a simple illustration of this concept: Each of us has a specific mind/body type that requires certain kinds of care, just as each plant in a nursery has differing needs of care. Would you plant a papaya tree in Alaska or water lilies in the Arizona desert? No! In a similar manner, our physiology has its special “watering and care instructions,” which Ayurveda can clearly identify.
For example, Ayurveda recognizes that our bodies are affected in different ways by seasonal changes in weather. If your constitution is of a “fiery” nature, the eating of spicy foods in midsummer will heat you up too much and can either create chronic inflammation in the body or inflame your emotions and mind to the point of irritability or anger. According to the laws of thermodynamics, when temperature decreases, orderliness increases, and, conversely, chaos increases as temperature rises. In the Ayurvedic system, mental and body temperature increase when it’s hot outside or when we eat spicy foods; hence the need to “temper” ourselves when our fiery nature gets elevated through too much internal or external heat.
Ayurveda focuses on how nature functions, both inside and outside our bodies. We are governed by the same laws of nature as the rest of the universe. Everything we are exposed to – including all aspects of our environment, lifestyle, and diet – acts according to these laws to affect how we feel. The guidelines of Ayurveda, by giving us knowledge of these laws, are meant to help us make informed decisions about our lives and to empower our choices. The practice of Ayurveda is not meant to be dogmatic or create any sense of strain. Rather, its point is to be happy and healthy.
To chart the beginnings of Ayurveda, we must travel back in time several thousand years. It is said that the wisdom of nature’s functioning was intuited by the Vedic rishis or seers of India from within their own deepest consciousness, tapping into the unified field of consciousness that underlies the laws of the universe. Initially, this knowledge was conveyed verbally, and handed down through family lineages, keeping it pure for thousands of years. Then, approximately 3500 years ago, Ayurveda was consolidated into a written form. Over time, many authors have contributed their texts and interpretations to this extensive body of knowledge. Today, however, the Charaka, Sushruta, and Bhela Samhitas are accepted as the seminal authentic texts on Ayurveda.[2,3]
In the late twentieth century, a modern-day rishi named Maharishi Mahesh Yogi developed a form of Ayurveda based on the understanding that consciousness is the basis of health. Prior to his passing in 2008, he extensively studied the ancient texts and, it is said, restored and consolidated the fragmented aspects of Ayurveda into the comprehensive system that bears his name, Maharishi AyurVeda. I am a practitioner of this system.
The laws of nature
The fundamental basis for the system of Ayurveda is the need to work in harmony with the laws of nature. What does this mean? It is obvious to the casual observer – and substantiated by quantum physics – that there are laws affecting all phenomena in the cosmos. Many of these, including the laws of thermodynamics and electromagnetism, are well known to even lay persons, and knowledge of them has given rise to all our marvels of modern technology. What has been lacking is their application to the optimal functioning of human physiology. We utilize these laws in developing our smart phones, but it is also important to apply them to our health. By doing so, we work in harmony with nature. Using Western medical treatments based on only partial understanding of nature’s laws can result in side effects that are often worse than the conditions these treatments were designed to alleviate.
Here is an example of what we mean by “nature’s laws.” There are daily cycles that are mirrored in our bodies’ functions. The hottest part of the day is usually when the sun is at its zenith, from 11:00 AM to 2:00 PM. Ayurveda tells us that this is when pitta – the energetic principle governing internal fire – is most lively. Interestingly, science confirms that this is when we produce the greatest digestive “fire,” with the highest activity of digestive enzymes. Billions of people worldwide live in accordance with this law and have their main meal at midday. Americans, however, tend to have most of their caloric intake at night, when production of digestive enzymes is lowest. This results in less availability of nutrients and greater buildup of undigested food and ama, a sticky, toxic substance resulting from incomplete digestion or environmental toxins.
Moreover, many people have experienced a feeling of fatigue at around 9:00 PM and found that if they push through it, they have a new wave of energy and wakefulness at around 10:00 PM. Why is this? From an Ayurvedic perspective, the 24 hours of the day are divided into different periods based on the cycles of nature. The hours from 10:00 PM to 2:00 AM coincide with the nighttime pitta period. The production of energy is a primary characteristic of pitta, hence there is more wakefulness at this time. However, at night, this energy is not meant to be used for our external activities but rather for the digestive and metabolic processes that enable us to self-repair and to restore vital bodily functions. Going to bed before 10:00 PM is a key to longevity.
The Ayurvedic system
Ayurveda is often correctly referred to as a total system of health in that it includes diet, digestion, routine, lifestyle, microbiome, body type, seasonal effects, supplements, and botanicals. This holistic approach touches on all aspects of life and draws from many areas of knowledge to produce the conditions for optimal health of the individual. In India, Ayurvedic experts are called vaidyas. From a Western perspective, they are analogous to physicians. However, their approach to diagnosis is more comprehensive than that of allopathic doctors. When approaching a patient, the first thing an Ayurvedic practitioner asks is: “Who is this individual?” This does not refer only to taking a health history, as in Western medicine, but also to determining their body type, or constitution. The initial focus is not on the health conditions that the patient has but rather on the question “Who am I treating?” Thus, the practitioner is better able to make specific and appropriate recommendations for the individual. No treatment is suggested until that question is answered.
This is accomplished through several diagnostic procedures. First, the patient’s physical characteristics, personality, and behavior are observed. This will include their body weight, movements, joint and blood vessel prominence, speech, and so forth. Then, the patient will likely be asked to fill out an Ayurvedic evaluation form that might address, but would not be limited to, their diet, digestion, elimination, medications, botanicals,nutritional supplements, sleep, exercise, and other lifestyle factors.
Finally, the practitioner will usually examine the patient’s pulse. This is done in a different way and has different objectives than a Western medical pulse diagnosis. Although it is well beyond the scope of this article to elaborate on the subtleties of this technique, I will provide a brief overview. However, it is important to note that all of the diagnostic tools mentioned above have equal value. In conducting a thorough patient work-up, all of these can be employed. In many cases, it’s obvious what is wrong with the patient and what interventions would be applicable without ever taking the pulse.
Ayurvedic pulse diagnosis, nadi vigyan, is a subtle procedure done by placing three fingers on the wrist. The index finger is placed nearest to the radial styloid (the bony prominence on the thumb side of the wrist), with the other two fingers below this. The three fingers are touching each other, and light pressure is applied with the fingertips. The pulse is discerned at different levels, or depths, and different types of sensations are considered during the evaluation.
In Ayurveda, there are six stages of disease – accumulation, aggravation, dissemination, localization, manifestation, and chronicity or disruption – that are revealed through these diagnostic methods. In stages 1 and 2, there are no symptoms detectable by Western medicine. Conventional medicine usually recognizes imbalances in levels 5 and 6, and occasionally level 4. Ayurveda is able to locate an imbalance in the physiology long before it manifests as a clear disease process. This distinguishes Ayurveda as a prevention-oriented form of health maintenance, but it also can eliminate disease that has already erupted with specific symptoms.
Although the practitioner examines the pulse for the purpose of diagnosis, taking one’s own pulse provides a different benefit. It can facilitate a process called “self-referral,” which assists us in returning our normally outwardly directed attention and energy back onto ourselves and our own bodies. This increases the mind-body connection at the most fundamental level – something that can be achieved in an even more profound way by some meditation systems, particularly the Transcendental Meditation technique.
The doshas: vata, pitta, and kapha
According to Vedic literature, the fundamental building blocks of all creation are the tanmatras, or subtle elements. These combine to form the five fundamental elements, or mahabhutas, from which the material world is created.* The five mahabutas, in turn, combine to form vata, pitta, and kapha. In Ayurveda, these three qualities are called the doshas. Vata represents the principle of movement; pitta the principle of metabolism, energy, or fire; and kapha the principle of structure, solidity, and cohesiveness. Everything in the universe has all three of these qualities. The basic tenet of Ayurveda is that man, the microcosm, has the same structure as the macrocosm, which is all of nature. This explains the connection of man to the cycles of time, the seasons, and other aspects of nature.
Vata governs all movement in the body and mind. It has been described as the “king of the doshas,” as it has the ability to pull the other doshas out of balance if it is out of balance. Vata governs the senses, voice quality, reasoning, creative thinking, elimination, sexual function, the menstrual cycle, heart rhythm, blood flow, perspiration, and touch. The qualities of vata include cold and dryness, and its main location is the colon.
A typical predominately vata individual will be very tall, slight of build, and physically flexible. They will have thin hair and prominent joints and veins. Their skin may be dry, dull, and rough, and they are likely to have cold extremities. Vatas have quick minds, prefer being in nature, and are alert, creative, and perceptive, although they may not have the best memory retention. A good daily routine keeps them balanced.
An imbalance of the vata dosha can lead to a restless mind, anxiety, worry, fear, panic attacks, sleep disturbances, breathing difficulties, intestinal gas and cramping, constipation, menstrual issues, dementia, and dry, rough skin or scalp. When a condition of imbalance exists, vatas may suffer from arthritis, fibromyalgia, and migraines.
Pitta governs heat and fire in the body. It controls digestion and metabolism of not only our food but our perceptions as well. Our moral sense of right and wrong falls within the realm of pitta. The main location of pitta is the small intestine.
An individual who is predominately pitta will be athletic and of medium height and weight. Their skin will be prone to sunburn and freckles. They are sensitive to light, usually have blond or red hair, and have a tendency to go bald or grey prematurely. They are goal oriented, competitive, and organized, and they favor being in control. The predominant sense for pittas is sight, and they enjoy beauty and panoramic views.
If the pitta dosha is imbalanced, it can lead to rash behavior, angry reactions, harsh speech, and perfectionistic tendencies, as well as skin rashes, loose stools, hot flashes, excess stomach acidity, and high blood pressure. Individuals may be overly demanding and critical of themselves and others, dislike hot weather, and tend to wake up in the early hours of morning and have difficulty returning to sleep. Pittas may be prone to inflammatory conditions, including those of the muscles, joints, and organs.
Kapha governs the muscles, bones, and all structure and lubrication in the body, as well as body weight and growth. It has cool and wet qualities, and its main location is in the chest.
An individual who is predominantly kapha will be strong and full figured with large features and limbs. They will have thick, abundant hair; a soft voice; and “glowing” skin that is cool and fair. Kaphas tend toward complacency; move at a slow, deliberate pace; and generally give the impression of being solid and grounded in their behavior. They often over-accumulate material items and love to eat.
If kapha is imbalanced, it can lead to overweight, sinus issues/congestion, heavy yet unrefreshing sleep, dislike of cold or damp weather, laziness or lethargy, depression, stubbornness, stiffness, and excessive oiliness of the hair and skin. Kaphas may also have a tendency to colds, allergies, water retention, and sluggish digestion.
Prakriti and vrikriti
Prakriti is a term used to describe an individual’s constitution, or general underlying nature – in essence, the inherent balance of the three doshas within that person at the time of their conception. The prakriti is usually expressed by the primary and then the secondary dosha. For example, we might describe someone as a pitta-vata or pitta-kapha constitutional type. The prakriti generally does not change over the course of a person’s life.
In addition to assessing our prakriti, the Ayurvedic physician determines our current state of balance, which incorporates any imbalances we have acquired from those times when we did not live in balance and harmony with our specific nature (basically, when we did things that weren’t good for us). This current state of balance is known as our vrikriti.
The main consideration in Ayurveda is to determine the prakriti and then assist the individual in designing the best diet, lifestyle, and routines to support who they are. If there are imbalances present, attention will be given to resolving them and reestablishing harmony within the prakriti. So, in Ayurveda, we are addressing the prakriti and the vrikriti in both the diagnostic work-up and the treatment plan.
Key factors in living a balanced life
The main Ayurvedic points to consider for each individual are diet, digestion, routine, and lifestyle, and corrective measures may need to be taken in any or all of these areas. When we set out to design an optimal life through examination of these points, a very important understanding is the concept of ama. In its broadest definition, this Ayurvedic term refers to any toxins we are exposed to, including the waste products of incomplete digestion, emotional or psychological overloads, and negative mental patterns. Ama is a sticky, inhibitory substance that will negatively affect our physical and mental well-being. An increase in ama in the body will eventually produce acute and chronic dysfunction or disease, examples of which are obesity, arthritis, or “foggy” brain. Western science is now isolating substances such as advanced glycation end products that have similarities to ama, validating what Ayurveda has been saying for thousands of years. If we violate the laws that are the basis of our nature – and nature at large – we incur an increase in ama.
Diet and digestion
An Ayurvedic proverb states: “Without proper diet, medicines are of no use. With proper diet, medicines are of no need.” The following general guidelines will help you develop a proper diet to reduce the production of ama in your body.
- Eat freshly cooked food, not leftovers or reheated dishes. Food that was cooked more than 24 hours ago is considered “old” and has started a natural breakdown process that will lead to production of ama. When dining at restaurants, it is very important to ask when items were prepared.
- Avoid precooked, processed, or packaged food, which is old and thus increases ama. This includes tofu, canned soups, pasteurized fruit juices, bread, and crackers.
- Reduce your intake of cheese, which is also viewed as old.
- Eat your main meal at midday, between noon and 2:00 PM. Any heavy foods should also be eaten at midday. Examples would be meats, pizza, and heavy carbohydrate or fatty/oily foods.
- Do not have cold food or beverages with meals. Cold reduces our digestive fire, producing weaker digestion. Consuming cold drinks at mealtime is like pouring ice water onto a campfire and still expecting it to cook your food! At restaurants, decline ice water and ask for hot water and lemon, which will aid digestion.
- Limit consumption of foods that will aggravate your predominant dosha. For example, don’t eat a lot of spicy, hot foods if you are a pitta type; don’t overindulge in rich, fatty foods if you are a kapha type; and don’t consume an excess of cold foods and beverages, including raw foods and salads, if you are a vata type.
- Generally avoid the above-mentioned foods during the seasons that correspond to your constitutional type; for example, those with a predominance of pitta would be unwise to eat spicy food on a hot summer day.
- Wait three to six hours between meals.
- The ideal quantity of food is such that the stomach will be filled one-third with food, one-third with fluid, and one-third with space. Do not eat to more than 75 percent of your stomach capacity.
- Eat in a quiet, comfortable place.
- Do not eat standing up, and remain seated for at least ten minutes after meals. The energy that goes to standing will not be available for digesting your food; hence you will have improper digestion and increased ama.
- Refrain from doing other things, such as watching television, texting, or working on the computer, while eating. These activities require energy and reduce the attention that goes to eating, leading to more production of ama and less uptake of nutrients.
- Try to finish the evening meal before 7:00 PM. Do not eat close to bedtime, since enzymatic production is low at that time and your food will be poorly digested.
If you have cravings (for alcohol, coffee, tobacco, between-meals snacks, etc.), sip one cup of hot water, wait ten minutes, then have whatever you are craving. This is a simple way to wean yourself off of less favorable substances that would clog the system with ama. Continue doing this and the cravings will drop away naturally without strain. The herb Gymnema sylvestre, brewed as a tea, can also reduce cravings for sugar and sweets, as it blocks the sweet receptors on the tongue.
Vata, pitta, and kapha foods
Following are a few examples of foods that will help balance each dosha, as well as those that should be avoided. More extensive lists may be found online; one helpful web page is: www.banyanbotanicals.com/info/ayurvedic-living/living-ayurveda/diet/.
Vata: Good foods include sweet and sour fruits, sweet grains (such as rice and wheat), avocado, sweet potato, and asparagus. Avoid cold drinks and foods, salads, dried fruits, white potatoes, broccoli, and kale.
Pitta: Good foods include sweet fruits, dates, sweet grains, leafy greens, kale, and broccoli. Avoid spicy foods, red meat, corn, millet, sour fruits, bananas, tomatoes, and garlic.
Kapha: Good foods include leafy greens, millet, corn, bitter fruits, apples, berries, and pears. Avoid: sweet fruits and grains, sweet potatoes, avocado, and cucumber.
Having said the above, I want to explain that there is a place in the Ayurvedic tradition for cultural heritage and dietary choices. If one has lived in a particular culture that has eaten a certain way for hundreds or even thousands of years, we do not disturb that proclivity. For example, Asian cultures tend to eat a lot of rice, and the Irish have traditionally consumed a lot of potatoes. It is important to enjoy what we eat and not create undue pressure to change.
Animal protein and Ayurveda
Ayurveda is a largely vegetarian system of health. However, some animal sources of protein are accepted and widely used in an Ayurvedic diet. Dairy is the primary source of animal-based protein. Whole milk is used in Ayurveda not just as a food but for medicinal purposes as well. Panir, a curd cheese, is very high in protein and is used frequently in Ayurvedic cooking. Whey protein powder is also useful as a supplement in the diet to assure adequate nutrition.
Meat, particularly red meat, although not suggested as a dietary staple, is used therapeutically for short periods in the case of certain physical conditions, particularly heavy vata imbalances. Vata-dominant individuals can have eggs, white chicken and turkey, and some fish. These should be taken in small servings and eaten at the midday meal. For kaphas, meat, poultry, and fish are not indicated. Dairy can be taken, but sparingly. Finally, pittas should avoid red meat and fish. White meat turkey and chicken, as well as eggs, are acceptable, but only at the midday meal and in small servings.
The role of tastes
Tastes are very important to diet and digestion. Ayurveda classifies six tastes, called rasas: sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter, and astringent. In the West, we do not put much importance on the relationship between taste and metabolism. However, in Ayurveda, it is said that we should have all six tastes in every meal to allow the body to extract and produce all of the substances needed for optimal metabolism. For ease in achieving this, churnas, or spice mixes, are available for each dosha. These are used in cooking or sprinkled on the prepared meal. (One good source for purchasing churnas is www.mapi.com.) Below are some examples of foods that illustrate each taste.
Sweet: Grains, non-curdled dairy, fats, sweets, sweet fruits, cooked vegetables, and root vegetables such as potatoes and carrots. These decrease vata and pitta and increase kapha.
Sour: Sour milk products, lemons, limes, other citrus fruit, fermented foods, and carbonated beverages. These decrease vata and increase pitta and kapha.
Salty: Salt, celery, seaweeds, and cottage cheese. These decrease vata and increase pitta and kapha.
Pungent: Hot spices, radishes, onions, garlic, cinnamon, and cardamom. These increase vata and pitta and decrease kapha.
Bitter: Green and leafy green vegetables, sesame seeds, turmeric, and bitter melon. These increase vata and decrease pitta and kapha.
Astringent: Raw vegetables, cranberries, pomegranate, chickpeas, parsley, and coriander. These increase vata and decrease pitta and kapha.
Although diet and digestion are strongly connected, our digestion is perhaps the most important of the two because it controls the absorption of nutrients. Key to the topic of digestion is understanding agni, or digestive fire. As indicated earlier, our digestive fire is greatest during the midday period, coincident with the sun being at its zenith and with the hottest part of the day. This is why we should eat our biggest meal and any particularly heavy foods, such as meats and cheeses, at midday.
In addition to following the dietary tips listed previously, we can benefit our digestion by incorporating ginger into our meals, sipping hot water (to which lemon may be added) with meals to ignite agni, and chewing our food thoroughly before swallowing, as this is the beginning of the digestive process. Make sure not to overeat.Take triphala (an Ayurvedic herbal formula containing three fruits native to the Indian subcontinent) in warm water 30 minutes before bed.
Routine and lifestyle
Like other living things, we thrive on regularity and routine. For all dosha types, it is best to go to bed between 9:00 and 10:00 PM, and arise between 3:00 and 6:00 AM. Upon arising, it is important to perform the following oral care routine before eating or drinking anything. (This routine should also be done just before retiring.)
First, scrape your tongue with a metal tongue scraper. From a dental perspective, tongue scraping helps combat gum disease, plaque, and bad bacteria buildup in the mouth. (For more information, see my article in the Summer 2016 issue of the Price-Pottenger Journal of Health and Healing.) From an Ayurvedic point of view, this is vital to get rid of the toxins that have built up overnight on your tongue. The act of tongue scraping also helps stimulate the taste buds and elimination systems. Next, floss your teeth and use interdental brushes, then brush your teeth. This can be followed with gandusha, or oil pulling, if you desire. During the day, rinse your mouth within three to five minutes after eating or drinking anything.
Drink two to four cups of warm water upon rising, after brushing your teeth. (For some people, particularly those with kidney problems, four cups of water at one time may be excessive.) This flushes out toxins that the body has been ridding itself of during sleep, hydrates the body first thing in the morning, and encourages elimination. You can add lemon to the water if you wish, but rinse with fresh water afterwards because of lemon’s acidic effect on the teeth and gums.
Sip hot water throughout the day. If you already have some disease or pain or are overweight, it is especially important to sip three to four ounces every 20 to 30 minutes each day. Stop at sunset. I have had several patients who have had rapid weight loss from this alone! Do not underestimate the value of this simple technique.
It is also beneficial in the morning to do yoga asanas (poses), followed by pranayama (breathing techniques) and meditation. I recommend Transcendental Meditation, which has been extensively studied.
For vatas: Regularity is particularly important for this dosha type. Exercise daily by walking, swimming, or doing light resistance exercises between 6:00 and 10:00 AM. In the practice of yoga, select asanas that are not too vigorous. Keep regular mealtimes and work hours. Stay warm and out of the wind. Take particular care during the vata seasons of fall and winter to avoid imbalances in diet, digestion, routine, and lifestyle.
For pittas: Do not accept too many commitments. Do not skip any meals, as the pitta digestive fire requires fuel or it will create irritability. The work schedule can be a big vulnerability in that pittas tend to take on too much and then feel overwhelmed. Make sure to get adequate rest; naps are good. The best types of exercise are swimming, walking, yoga, and moderate resistance exercises. Take care during summer, the pitta season, to maintain a balanced diet and routine.
For kaphas: Do not stay in bed past 7:00 AM, and try to limit sleep to seven hours. Avoid overeating fatty or oily foods and consuming too many carbohydrates. Kaphas can do heavier resistance exercises, and long vigorous walks are good. Maintain your own slow and steady pace and avoid being drawn into the hectic vata/pitta approach to life. Take adequate leisure time, more than is required for pittas and vatas. Spring is kapha season, so take care to avoid imbalance during this period.
Herbs and herbal medicine
This is a vast topic in Ayurveda. Many Ayurvedic texts entirely dedicated to herbology have been written. However, a few brief words are necessary here.
Although herbs do function on a chemical/metabolic level, they also have a more subtle influence. They “remind” the body of the pattern of good health. For example, an herb for normalizing high blood pressure has a chemical effect but also provides a template for the physiology to recreate a state of balance.
It cannot be emphasized enough that the tendency to look for a “cure in a bottle” is completely contrary to the Ayurvedic approach to health and longevity. The emphasis of Ayurveda is on prevention, not treatment. We doneed to treat the numerous health conditions that exist today, but we must keep in mind that they are all theresult of imbalances caused by the violation of some natural law(s). If the underlying imbalances in diet, digestion, routine, and lifestyle are not addressed and the accumulation of ama is not reduced, the treatment is doomed to fail or the condition to recur.
Summary of basic treatment protocol
All Ayurvedic treatment revolves around the following general process, with the overriding principle of developing self-sufficiency in harmony with the laws of nature. First, we determine who the patient is, identifying their dosha predominance and detecting any imbalances in diet, digestion, routine, and lifestyle. Then, the focus is on correcting these imbalances. In so doing, we may use Ayurvedic cleansing techniques and various other treatment modalities. If necessary, we may also suggest the use of herbal preparations or nutritional supplements. These treatment protocols must be adjusted as the patient’s condition improves over time. Following this Ayurvedic process enables us to help the individual achieve healing and maintain balance in both their mind and body.
About the Author
Michael Olmstead, DDS, is a certified Maharishi AyurVeda Practitioner and an integrative medicine health practitioner. He is also a biocompatible dentist with an extensive background in all phases of dental care. An honors graduate of the University of Southern California School of Dentistry, he has authored many consumer-oriented articles and has been featured on radio and television. He is available for both Ayurvedic and dental consultations at www.drolmstead.com. He may also be contacted at 877-335-3069.
* According to the work of physicist John Hagelin, PhD, the five tanmatras, or energy quanta, have conspicuous similarities to the five fundamental spin types in quantum mechanics (spins 0, 1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2).[5,6]
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- Scientific Research on Maharishi’s Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programme: Collected Papers. Vols. 1-7. See http://www.mumpress.com/scientific-research/collected-papers/ scientific-research-on-transcendental-meditation-and-tm-sidhi-program-full-set.html.
- Hagelin JS. Is consciousness the unified field? A field theorist’s perspective. Modern Science and Vedic Science. 1987; 7(1):29-87.
- Hagelin JS. Restructuring physics from its foundation in light of Maharishi Vedic Science. Modern Science and Vedic Science. 1989; 3(1):3-72.
- Charaka Samhita, Vimana Sthana, 2.3.
Published in the Price-Pottenger Journal of Health and Healing
Summer 2017 | Volume 41, Number 2
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