Access to all articles, new health classes, discounts in our store, and more!
The health of our eyes can have a major impact on our sense of well-being and our quality of life. People with significant vision loss have an increased risk of depression, falls, cognitive decline and even premature death. This is an area of concern for many of us, as blindness and impaired vision make up one of the top ten disabilities among adults in the U.S., taking a substantial and economic toll, and their incidence is expected to increase dramatically as the nation’s population ages. However, many people may be surprised to learn that holistic measures can often prevent, slow, or halt the vision loss associated with eye disease, and in some instances, even reverse it.
Our vision is not an isolated phenomenon, unrelated to general health. Neither are eye diseases the sole province of conventionally-trained physicians, who may offer drugs and surgery as our only treatment options. To the contrary, the proper functioning of the eyes is inextricably linked to other bodily systems, and many eye conditions may respond to proper diet, nutritional supplementation and lifestyle adaptations.
This article focuses on three of the most common eye disorders experienced by Americans: cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Each of these conditions can lead to vision impairment or blindness. In the treatment of each, however, holistic measures can play an important role, sometimes in conjunction with conventional medical practices, and sometimes as the only viable option when Western medicine has no solution to offer.
A cataract is basically a clouding or opacity of the normally transparent lens of the eye, resulting from the abnormal clumping of certain proteins. In a healthy eye, light passes through the lens – located behind the pupil and iris – and is focused on the retina, which converts images into electrical signals, and sends them to the optic nerve to the brain. If a cataract has formed, however, the passage of light is blocked to a certain degree, based on the size, density, and location of the obstruction. The effect on vision may range from a barely noticable dimming of the sight to complete blindness.
Cataracts, in fact, are responsible for over half the cases of blindness in the world. In the U.S., they affect over 24 million people over the age of 40, and that figure is expected to rise to almost 38 million by 2030. Few Americans become blind from the disorder, due to the relative availability of health care in this country and the fact that cataracts are among the most treatable causes of impaired vision. However, they remain the single greatest cause of vision loss in the U.S.
While only 15 percent of American have at least one cataract by age 55, half of the population experiences them by age 75, and that figure rises to 90 percent by age 85(p41). The type of cataract associated with aging, known as a “senile cataract”, is by far the most common, although there are also forms of the condition that may be present at birth or may develop at any time of life. Age-related cataracts tend to progress over time. In early stages they can cause the vision to seem cloudy or hazy and more light may be required for tasks such as reading. Depth and color perception and night vision may also be affected, and glare may become a problem. Left untreated, this type of cataract will gradually obscure the vision.
Senile cataracts should not be considered an inevitable consequence of advancing age, however. It is believed that the production of free-radicals, caused by oxidative stress, plays a major role in the development of the disorder. In healthy eyes, the free-radicals that naturally result from the processes of metabolism will naturally be removed by nutrients such as Vitamin C and glutathione. The formation of cataracts indicates that the delivery of nutrients into the eyes and the removal of waste products has been compromised.
Thus, factors that increase the oxidative burden of the eyes increase the risk of cataracts – and ones that decrease free radicals can protect against them. Risk factors for cataracts include: heredity; increasing age; cumulative exposure to ultraviolet rays from sunlight; long-term use of certain medications, including steroids and photosensitizing drugs; exposure to radiation, as from large numbers of x-rays; trauma to the eye; chronic physical stress; systemic diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, and hypertension; bodily accumlation of toxic metals; tobacco smoking; excessive alcohol consumption; obesity; poor nutrition and impaired digestion.
Dietary and digestive factors can have a major impact on cataract formation, as well as on eye health in general. An unhealthy diet, especially one low in antioxidants such as Vitamin C, E and A, can promote cataract development. Low stomach acid can interfere with nutrient absorption, creating more free radicals in the body and resulting in deficiencies that can cause cataracts to develop earlier and progress more quickly. Allergies and food sensitivities – particularly soy, wheat, and dairy allergies – may constrict or block the ciruclation in tiny blood vessels, hampering their ability to deliver nutrients to the eye. In addition, excessive intake of simple sugars and carbohydrates, leading to elevated blood sugar levels, can contribute to cataract formation by increasing protein clumping. Even lactose, the sugar found in dairy products, can be a factor, as it can destroy both Vitamin C and glutathione in the lens.(p42)
The conventional treatment for cataracts that interfere with the individual’s sight and lifestyle is surgery. Cataract removal is the most common form of surgery in the U.S., with approximately 3 million procedures performed annually. It is also one of the safest surgeries with an overall success rate of over 98 percent. Today, the method most frequently performed involves breaking up the hardened lens with an ultrasonic beam in a process called phacoemulsification. The pieces are removed from the eye with a suction device, and an artificial lens – called an intraocular lens, or IOL – is implanted. Although the risks associated with this surgery are low, a small number of patients develop bacteria infections after surgery. Another potential complication is a malpositioned or dislocated intraocular lens implant, which would need to be corrected with further surgery. Other infrequent complications include corneal swelling, retinal tearing and detachment, iritis (chronic inflammation), and hemorrhage.
After undergoing cataract surgery, about 20 percent will develop a loss in visual acuity, due to posterior capsule opacification (PCO), also known as secondary cataract, which results from the growth of remaining lens epithelial cells. The only current treatment for PCO is laser capsulectomy, a surgery that creates a central opening in the capsule (the remaining lens covering); this procedure is relatively simple but carries the risk of various complications, including retinal detachment.
Although surgery is the generally accepted treatment for advanced cataracts, dietary and lifestyle modifications may be sufficient to halt or even reverse the condition’s progression if it is caught early enough. Here are some suggestions that may be of use, both to protect against or to treat cataracts:
- Wear UV-blocking wraparound sunglasses when outdoors in bright sunlight
- Refrain from smoking tobacco or drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
- Avoid using microwave ovens (food proteins cooked by microwave can be toxic to the lens)(p44)
- Get tested and treated (if necessary) for heavy metal toxicity
- Drink enough water to stay hydrated to maintain the flow of nutrients and wastes to and from the eye (one suggestion is four ounces every half hour, unless contraindicated for other reasons)
- Eat foods high in vitamin C, Vitamin E and beta-carotene (including leafy greens and brightly colored fruits and vegetables)
- Include in the diet cysteine-containing foods (eggs, garlic, avocado, asparagus, onion and red meat) which boost glutathione production in the body
- Eliminate refined sugars and processed and chemically laden foods
- Avoid unhealthy fats, such as polyunsaturated and trans fats, which promote oxidation
- Use eye drops containing N-acetylcarnosine or homeopathic cineraria maritima
Orally administrated homeopathic remedies have also been successful in cataract development. While it is best to see a homeopath for a constitutional remedy, one of the following may be of use in the short term, while you are awaiting professional treatment: calcarea (for very early stages, before symptoms are noticeable); silica (at the first sign of sight impairment); phosphorus (if you seem to have a veil over your eyes); and ruta graveolens (for hot, red eyes with dimmed vision).(p149)
Dietary supplements that are recommended in the prevention and treatment of cataracts include:
- Vitamin C, Vitamin E and beta-carotene (best when natural and formulated with mixed carotenoids)
- B-complex Vitamins (B2 and B3 have a protective effect against cataracts)
- Glutathione (an antioxidant manufactured in the liver; it is generally poorly absorbed when taken directly, but its levels in the body can be increased by taking nutrients such as N-acetyl-cysteine, alpha lipoic acid, MSM, and SAMe)
- Lutein and zeaxanthin (the only carotenoids found in the lens)
- Zinc (protects the lens against light-induced damage)
- Copper and manganese (retard cataract growth)
- L-lysine (important in collagen formation, which is necessary for lens repair)
- Superoxide dismutase (SOD) (a free-radical scavenger; very effective at reducing cataract density)
- Quercetin and rutin (protect the lens from oxidation)
Glaucoma is a group of diseases, characterized by progressive atrophy of the optic nerve, that in the absence of treatment can lead to severe restriction of the visual field and, ultimately, blindness. The medical and scientific understanding of glaucoma has changed significantly in recent years, and a comprehensive definition has not yet emerged. However, it is now believed by many researchers to be a neurodegenerative disorder, not unlike Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, that results in nerve cell death. In this paradigm, increased intraocular pressure (IOP) – long thought to be the main cause of the disease, in most cases – is simply a risk factor.
An estimated 4.5 million people worldwide are blind as a result of glaucoma, which is the second leading cause of blindness on the planet, following cataracts. In the U.S., it follows macular degeneration as the second most common cause of blindness.(p133) As many as 15 million Americans may have the disease, and almost 2 million experience some degree of vision loss from it.(p31)
Current medical and surgical treatments can frequently halt the deterioration of vision, if glaucoma is diagnosed in early stages; however, conventional medicine as yet has no established therapies for reversing vision loss that has already taken place. Because in the most common form of the disease no symptoms are discernable to the individual until vision has been significantly affected, glaucoma is sometimes referred to as “the silent thief of sight”. Fortunately, a complementary approach – encompassing diet, supplements, and lifestyle – can help to reduce risk factors, and may be able to halt or even reverse its progression.
Many cases of glaucoma are associated with elevated IOP – increased pressure of the aqueous humor, the clear fluid that bathes the anterior portion of the eye, providing it with oxygen and nutrients. The aqueous humor drains out through a sieve of tissue called the trabecular meshwork, located in a small canal between the iris and the cornea. If too much fluid is produced or the drainage mechanism does not work properly, IOP may build up, potentially leading to optic nerve damage. Although the exact mechanism by which this damage takes place has not been definitely established, one theory holds that elevated IOP may damage the capillaries around the optic nerve, reducing the supply of nutrients to the nerve fibers that run to the optic nerve from the retina.(p127)
Increased pressure may also result in mechanical compression of nerve fibers. Because high blood pressure is a risk factor for elevated IOP (also known as ocular hypertension), those dietary and lifestyle known to reduce elevated blood pressure to healthy levels are strongly recommended in glaucoma prevention and treatment.
The most common form of the disease, accounting for 90 percent or more of cases, is open-angle glaucoma, so named because the angle where the cornea and iris meet is properly formed and open, but a dysfunction in the trabecular meshwork causes increased resistance in the outflow of aqueous humor. This type of glaucoma progresses slowly and insidiously, as the increased pressure initially affects peripheral vision, leaving straight-ahead vision unaltered until the disease process has advanced. In closed-angle or angle-closure glaucoma, the angle may be smaller than normal, and the trabecular meshwork can be blocked by the iris. Acute cases of angle-closure glaucoma, in which the aqueous becomes trapped behind the pupil, result in a sudden rise in IOP, with noticeable symptoms such as severe eye pain, reddening of the eye, nausea, and sudden onset of blurred vision; this condition requires immediate medical attention in order to avoid permanent vision loss.
However, as many as one-third to one-half of open-angle glaucoma cases may not have elevated IOP.(p55) In normal-tension or low-tension glaucoma, the degree of optic nerve damage or vision loss does not necessarily correlate with the level of pressure. Some patients with this type of glaucoma experience progressive optic nerve atrophy although their IOP never exceeds the statistically normal range. This tends to be a very aggressive form of glaucoma in which vision loss may begin in the central portion of the visual field, rather than the periphery. While the cause of normal-tension glaucoma has not been definitively established, autoimmunity and vascular dysfunction – such as poor microcirculation to the eye – are among the causes that have been suggested. Thus, nutritional measures to support immunity and improve circulation, throughout the body as well as in the region of the eye, may be of great help in preventing this condition or slowing its progression.
Risk factors for glaucoma include: elevated IOP, genetic inheritance, advancing age, extreme near-sightedness, eye trauma, long-term cortisone or steroid use, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, high blood pressure, chronic stress, and inadequate nutrition. Poor circulation can increase risk for two reasons: it can impede delivery of nutrients to the eye, potentially resulting in poor eye drainage and increased IOP, and it can interfere with the supply of nutrients to the optic nerve. High blood sugar, leading to insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, is also associated with increased IOP. Adrenal exhaustion has been proposed as a potential cause; when the adrenals produce insufficient quantities of the hormone aldosterone to stabilize salt balance, tissue fluids may build up, entering the eye, increasing IOP, and forcing the lens forward into a position that blocks the drainage tubes. Research also suggests a possible association between heavy computer use, particularly among the nearsighted – or, to a lesser extent, the farsighted – and glaucoma-related visual field abnormalities.
Because most people in early stages of glaucoma have few or no symptoms, regular check ups by an ophthalmologist are important to ensure early detection. However, patients would do well to consider alternative methods of treating this condition, in conjunction with conventional therapies, and – particularly in very early cases – some might find sufficient benefit solely from complementary medicine, nutrition, and lifestyle alterations, which entail fewer risks. Of course, decisions such as these might best be made in conjunction with one’s glaucoma specialist.
Conventional treatment of glaucoma has focused on the delivery of one or more pharmaceutical medications, usually via eye drops to be used daily. While these drugs vary in their exact mechanism of action, most of them are designed to lower IOP, either by inhibiting the production of aqueous humor, enhancing drainage from the eye, or both. Although they can be helpful in managing many cases of glaucoma, they are absorbed systemically by the body to various degrees and may cause undesirable and sometimes serious side effects. For example, beta blockers, which decrease aqueous production, can interfere with nervous system pathways that relate to heart rate and respiration. Among their side effects, beta blockers can reduce heart rate and induce heart rhythm abnormalities; cause shortness of breath in people with asthma, emphysema, or other lung diseases; upset cholesterol balance; and exacerbate depression. Alpha-agonists, which limit fluid production and can increase blood flow to the retina, may provoke serious allergic reactions in a significant number of patients, as well as potentially causing headache, fatigue, dry mouth, tachycardia, tremors, hypertension, and other side effects. Prostaglandin analogs, which relax the muscles within the eye to facilitate fluid drainage, have fewer systemic effects but can result in darkening of the irises, increased eyelash growth, inflammation of the iris, cystoid macular edema, and bronchitis. Other existing glaucoma medications have their own benefits and risks. There are also various new approaches currently under investigation, some of which focus on neuroprotection rather than the lowering of IOP.
Glaucoma surgery is recommended for some patients, usually with the goal of reducing IOP by improving fluid drainage from the eye. This surgery may involve creating new channels for escape of the aqueous fluid or using a laser to make small, evenly spaced burns around the iris to stimulate the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular meshwork. Other types of glaucoma surgery may include removal of a small piece of the iris, creation of a filtration reservoir in the eye, or installation of an aqueous shunt. Usually, surgery is reserved for patients who do not respond well to medication, those for whom compliance with drug regimens is problematic, and those undergoing or at risk for acute-angle closure glaucoma attacks.
Due to the progressive and insidious nature of glaucoma, it is vital that people with this condition remain under the care of an ophthalmologist. However, conventional treatments focus almost exclusively on reducing IOP. While bringing IOP down into normal or low normal ranges will halt or slow the progression of nerve atrophy in the majority of cases, those with advanced nerve damage or whose glaucoma is primarily caused by non-pressure-related factors may continue to lose visual capacity. For these individuals, complementary and holistic medicine may offer the most effective therapies.
Holistic therapies may also be of significant value to the larger population of glaucoma patients and glaucoma suspects (those with one or more risk factors who do not definitively exhibit optic nerve damage or visual field defects). A variety of dietary and lifestyle modifications, in addition to nutritional supplementation, can help reduce IOP, protect the retina and optic nerve from damage, and even restore some visual deficits caused by this disease. In fact, studies have indicated that some people with glaucoma can lower their eye pressure as well as or better than with drugs by improving their diets and supplement programs.(p35) Some general guidelines include reducing exposure to dietary and environmental toxins, increasing the intake of antioxidants (through consuming whole foods and nutritional supplements), exercising regularly, and developing effective stress reduction practices. These general recommendations would clearly benefit the population at large, but may be of particular value to those suffering from, or at risk for developing, glaucoma. Here are some more specific suggestions:
- Maintain a diet high in natural sources of beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and selenium.
- Reduce one’s glycemic load (select foods low in sugars and simple carbohydrates)
- Regularly participate in a form of aerobic exercise (30-40 minutes of walking five or more days per week can lower IOP as much as taking a beta blocker)
- Practice relaxation techniques (chronic stress is linked to glaucoma)
- Support the adrenal glands (a diet rich in whole, nutrient-dense foods is beneficial)
- Identify and avoid food allergens (consuming these can lead to immediate increases in IOP)
- Eliminate monosodium glutamate from the diet (evidence indicates that glutamate contributes to glaucoma)
- Wear UV-blocking wraparound sunglasses outdoors in bright sunlight
- Stay well hydrated (although some sources have suggested that those with glaucoma avoid drinking excessive amounts of water at one time)
- Refrain from smoking tobacco or drinking excessive amounts of alcohol
- Limit the use of caffeine
- Refrain from working at a computer for long periods, particularly if myopic (and take frequent breaks)
- Don’t watch television in a dark room (dilation of the pupils in darkness for long periods can bring on acute glaucoma)
Alternative modalities that may be helpful in glaucoma treatment include acupuncture and microcurrent therapy (electroacupuncture). Homeopathic remedies that may be of use, depending on the individual, include nux vomica, if there is elevated eye pressure, and sulfur, if the glaucoma is accompanied by pain.(p231) Homeopathic eye drops may also be considered. Coleus forskohlii eye drops have shown some effectiveness in lowering IOP but are not commercially available, and more research is needed to confirm the potential of antioxidant eye drops.
Dietary supplements that can reduce IOP, increase microcirculation, or protect the retina or optic nerve from damage include:
- Vitamin C and rutin (work together to decrease IOP)
- Vitamin E (protects the retina and optic nerve from damage)
- B-complex vitamins (B12 protects the optic nerve; B5 supports the adrenal glands)
- Magnesium (improves blood flow to the eye and may have a beneficial effect on the visual field)
- Chromium (reduces IOP)
- Bilberry (supports the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the eye)
- Gingko biloba (increases ocular blood flow and can reduce visual field loss in normal-tension glaucoma; may be contraindicated with blood thinners)
- Coleus forskohlii (reduces IOP when applied directly to the eye; more study is needed as to its efficacy when ingested)
- Trifola (an Ayurvedic combination of herbs that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system and reduces IOP
Age-related macular degeneration, often abbreviated as ARMD or AMD, is the gradual breakdown of the cells of the macula, a small area near the center of the retina that is responsible for our central, most strongly focused vision. The macula contains two areas of extremely high concentrations of cone cells, photoreceptors specialized for daytime vision that enable us to see colors and fine detail. As the cells in the macula deteriorate, sight becomes dimmer, with blank, dark, distorted, or foggy areas in the central vision, and difficulty arises in performing such common tasks as reading and recognizing faces. Although peripheral vision is not affected and thus total blindness will not result, the condition can cause serious disability, impacting the ability to work, travel, and even care for oneself within the home.
Macular degeneration affects more than two million Americans over the age of 50, with over seven million at significant risk of developing the disorder. Up to 90 percent of those with age-related macular degeneration have the “dry” form, in which the macula gradually thins and yellow or white deposits called drusen grow under the retina, eventually distorting or damaging cells in the macula. (Tiny drusen are common in people over the age of 60 and do not cause vision loss; in macular degeneration, the drusen tend to be larger and more numerous). Loss of sight from the dry form is often very slow. However, in about ten percent of those with dry macular degeneration, the condition will progress to the “wet” form, which involves the abnormal growth of new blood vessels under the macula and is more aggressive. Blood and fluid leakage from the new blood vessels, along with the formation of scar tissue, can lead to rapid and serious loss of central vision.
Age is a major risk factor for macular degeneration, with most cases occurring in people over 60. Other risk factors include a history of smoking, which more than doubles the risk; heredity; high blood pressure; arteriosclerosis; diabetes; obesity; systemic inflammation; bodily accumulation of environmental toxins, especially toxic metals; prolonged exposure to ultraviolet and high-intensity blue light; low dietary intake of antioxidants; nutritional deficiencies; and poor digestion. The macula is extremely susceptible to cellular damage from free radicals, so unhealthy dietary and lifestyle choices that promote oxidation can contribute to the development of this condition.
Conventional Western medicine has no effective treatment for the early stages of dry macular degeneration, but there are number of methods for halting progression of the wet form. Laser photocoagulation surgery is sometimes used to seal up leaky blood vessels, but this procedure runs the risk of destroying the retinal nerve fibers that pass through the area and sometimes ends up making vision worse. Photodynamic therapy, which is suitable only for a minority of wet macular degeneration cases, involves injecting a photosensitive drug into the bloodstream, and then shining a laser light into the eye to activate it, resulting in the formation of blood clots that block the abnormal blood vessels. This therapy is safer than photocoagulation and can slow the deterioration of vision, but may need to be repeated several times a year and may lead to severe loss of visual clarity.
Anti-angiogenic drugs used to inhibit blood vessel growth may be injected into the eyeballs on a regular basis, and these can stabilize the macula or even improve vision, but if treatment is stopped, leakage usually starts up again. Side effects of these drugs can include blurred vision, redness, tearing, floaters, and increased eye pressure; less often retinal detachment, retinal tear, and infection may result. If wet macular degeneration is left untreated, scar tissue can build up and profoundly impair vision.
Fortunately, there is much that can be achieved through diet, nutritional supplements, and lifestyle adjustments to reduce risk of macular degeneration and retard its progression – especially in its earliest stages when no conventional medical therapies are available. Nutritional supplementation can be of particular importance for those who have this disease, and therapeutic doses of nutrients including vitamins C, E, zinc, copper, and the caratenoids (which are related to vitamin A) can prevent progression of intermediate macular degeneration into an advanced form, and improve vision that has already been impaired.
Perhaps the two most significant nutrients for combating macular degeneration are lutein and zeaxanthin. These caratenoid antioxidants comprise the macular pigment, which serves as a filter to protect the cones of the macula from free radical damage caused by exposure to light. These are available in supplement form and are best taken with a source of healthy fat, and not at the same time as a beta-carotene supplement because they will compete with each other for absorption. Foods that contain high amounts of lutein and zeaxanthin include leafy green vegetables such as kale, collard greens, chard and spinach; broccoli; Brussels sprouts; corn; and egg yolk.
The following additional suggestions may also be of use in preventing macular degeneration and slowing down or stopping its progression:
- Maintain a high-antioxidant diet, rich in brightly colored vegetables and flavonoid-rich berries
- Increase omega-3 fatty acid intake from such sources as wild salmon, flax seed, and flax seed oil
- Consume lycopene-rich foods such as tomatoes (best cooked)
- Eliminate refined sugars and carbohydrates, unhealthy fats, and processed foods from the diet
- Avoid the use of aspirin, which can cause retinal hemorrhage
- Wear wraparound sunglasses with amber or orange lenses to block ultraviolet and blue light
- Get treated for heavy metal toxicity, if needed
- Refrain from smoking and limit consumption of alcohol and caffeine
- Take natural digestive aids, such as enzymes or betaine hydrochloride, if needed, to boost nutrient absorption
- Regularly practice a form of aerobic exercise
Homeopathic remedies that may be appropriate in cases of macular degeneration include hamamelis virginiana (if there is vascular infiltration of the macula), lachesis (with eye muscle fatigue), and phosphorus.(p269) Microcurrent stimulation and chelation are also being used to treat this condition.
Recommended supplements for prevention or treatment of macular degeneration include:
- Lutein and zeaxanthin (some sources suggest the addition of the isomer meso-zeaxathin)
- Vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene (with other caratenoids)
- B-complex vitamins (particularly B6, B12, and folic acid)
- Zinc (protects the retinal pigment; take with copper)
- Resveratrol (a component of red wine; may help reverse wet macular degeneration)
- Taurine (protects cells from ultraviolet light damage)
- Vinpocetine (an extract from periwinkle seeds; increases retinal circulation and visual acuity)
- Omega-3 fatty acids (particularly DHA and EPA, found in fish oil)
- Pycnogenol and grapeseed extract (antioxidant and vasoprotective effects)
- Bilberry (reduces oxidative damage to macular pigment and inhibits growth of new blood vessels)
- Gingko biloba (aids capillary microcirculation and improves visual acuity)
We are not helpless when faced with the prospect of an eye disease. Therapeutic dosages of the appropriate supplements, in conjunction with a healthy, whole foods diet and a positive lifestyle, are effective tools we can use in both prevention and treatment.
About the Author
Roberta Louis is managing editor of the Price-Pottenger Journal of Health and Healing and a contributing editor at Well Being Journal. She is a freelance writer and editor specializing in alternative healing methods and is currently pursuing an interest in herbal medicine. Contact her at [email protected].
Editor’s note: for further information on this topic, we recommend The Eye Care Revolution: Prevent and Reverse Common Vision Problems, by Robert Abel, Jr., MD.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vision Health Initiative (VHI) – Why Is Vision Loss a Public Health Problem? http://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basic_information/vision_loss.htm. Updated September 28, 2009.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vision Health Initiative (VHI) – Fast Facts. http://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basic_information/fast_facts.htm. Updated November 5, 2009.
- World Health Organization. Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment – Priority Eye Diseases. http://www.who.int/blindness/causes/priority/en/index1.html.
- National Eye Institute. Cataracts. http://www.nei.nih.gov/eyedata/cataract.asp.
- Grossman M, Edson M. Natural Eye Care: Your Guide to Healthy Vision. New Palz, NY: Natural Eye Care Media Services; 2006.
- Grossman M. Cataract Information. http://www.naturaleyecare.com/eye-conditions/cataracts.
- Knobbe CA. Cataract Surgery Complications. http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/cataract-complications.htm.
- Balch JF, Stengler M, Balch RY. Prescription for Natural Cures (Revised Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons; 2011.
- Chang EE, Goldberg JL. Glaucoma 2.0: neuroprotection, neuroregeneration, neuroenhancement. Opthalmology. May 2012; 119(5);979-86.
- Pedersen T. Glaucoma: A Neurological Disorder? Psych Central. http://www.psychcentral.com/news/2012/03/11/glaucoma-a-neurological-diso….
- World Health Organization. Global Data on Visual Impairments 2010. http://www.who.int/blindness/GLOBALDATAFINALforweb.pdf.
- Abel R Jr. The Eye Care Revolution: Prevent and Reverse Common Vision Problems. New York, NY: Kensington Books: 2004.
- Glaucoma Research Foundation. Types of Glaucoma. http://www.glaucoma.org/glaucoma/types-of-glaucoma.php.
- Harmon GK. What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Glaucoma. New York, NY: Warner Books; 2004.
- Tatemichi M, Nakano T, Tanaka K, et al. Possible association between heavy computer users and glaucomatous visual field abnormalities: a cross sectional study in Japanese workers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004;58: 1021-27, doi:10.1136/jech.2003.018127.
- Anshel J. Smart Medicine for Your Eyes: A Guide to Natural, Effective, and Safe Relief for Common Eye Disorders. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers; 2011.
- Vision Problems in the U.S. Prevent Blindness America website. 2012. http://www.preventblindness.org/VisionProblems.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vision Health Initiative (VHI) – Common Eye Disorders. http://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basic_information/eye_disorders.htm. Updated April 23, 2013.
Published in the Price-Pottenger Journal of Health and Healing
Winter 2013 – 2014 | Volume 37, Number 4
Copyright © 2014 Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, Inc.®
All Rights Reserved Worldwide